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    Is there a single 'secessionist' movement or are there different groups with their own ideologies? Who is who in Ambazonia? This would shock you!

    Camerooonian social media political activist; Dibussi Tande, shared this detailed exposé on the insurgency in Southern Cameroon, and it is worth reading!

    Why is the insurgency in Southern Cameroons not dying out after arrest of the leaders of Ambazonia Interim Government supposedly behind it all? Is there a single "secessionist" movement or are there different groups with their own ideologies/strategies?

    Yes indeed there are several 'Secessionist' movements:

    1. Republic of Ambazonia (RoA):

    Pioneer "restorationist" group led by Fon Gorgi Dinka who coined the term Ambazonia in 1984, its main advocacy tools are litigation (ex: Ambazonia Vs Cameroun, Bamenda 1992) & memoranda (Ex: New Social Order)

    Watch him talk in video below:


    2. Southern Cameroons National Council (SCNC): 

    Created in 1995 from the embers of federalist All Anglophone Conference (AAC). Was main advocate of Southern Cameroon independence until 2016 when new Anglophone groups emerged. Its motto is “The force of argument, not the argument of force."

    The “Ambazonian” flag that became popular among pro-independence groups after events of 8 December 2016 in Bamenda is an adaptation of the original 13-stripe flag adopted by an SCNC-sponsored Constituent Assembly in 2000.


    3. Southern Cameroons People's Organization (SCAPO):

    Created in 2001 to pursue legal case for independence of Southern Cameroons. Filed suit vs. Nigeria in Abuja in 2002 & vs. Cameroon in 2003 at African Com on Human & Peoples Rights which recognized Southern Cameroonians as a "people" in 2009.

    SCAPO adopted the motto “Live Free or Die Once” to distinguish itself from SCNC & referred to an independent Southern Cameroons as “AmbazAnia” to distinguish it from Fon Gorgi Dinka’s “AmbazOnia.”

    4. Southern Cameroons Youth League (SCYL):
    Founded in 1995 by Anglophone youths led by Ebenezer Akwanga & Cho Ayaba both of whom had been expelled from University of Buea for political activism. They were fed up with the SCNC’s reluctance to implement the road map to Southern Cameroons independence.
    Ebenezer Akwanga and Cho Ayaba

    The SCYL was accused of being behind attacks on government and military installations in the NW in 1997. Akwanga was sentenced to twenty years by the military tribunal but escaped from Kondengui, seven years later. SCYL has an armed wing; SOCADEF, which has claimed responsibility for recent attacks in the Manyu division.

    See Newspaper reports below:



    5. Consortium: 

    An umbrella organization created in 2016 grouping four lawyers' associations and several teachers' unions advocating an end to Anglophone marginalization in Cameroon and a return to federal system. Led by Barrister Felix Nkongho & Neba Fontem arrested in January 2017 and later released.

    Consortium leaders
    The Consortium abandoned its federalist stance when a more radical leadership emerged following arrest and exile of founding leaders. New leadership subsequently expelled the federalist; Felix Nkongho for opposing the "Restoration agenda" of the people of Southern Cameroon.

    6 . Ambazonia Governing Council (AGC). 

    Created around 2011 by ex members of SCNC & SCYL. Led by Cho Ayaba, it's armed wing is the ADF (Ambazonia Defense Force), aka Nchang Shoe Boys, who've claimed responsibility for recent attacks on Cameroon military forces, for example the incident that took place in Jakiri in November 2017.

    It was the ADF which established a foothold(Ambazonia army training camp) in the village of Dadi in Manyu division which was later overrun by Cameroon forces in December 2017 and which the former tried to recapture on January 2018. The AGC leader; Ayaba has promised “difficult times ahead” for “occupation forces”. See photos showing Cho Ayaba and the ADF.


    7 . Movement for the Restoration of the Independence of Southern Cameroons (Morisc): 

    Created in the USA in 2016 to “Enthrone a Government in Southern Cameroons that is based on popular consent, deriving authority and legitimacy from the people.” led by Boh Herbert.


    MORISC drafted “Roadmap to the Restoration of Independence” adopted by major Ambazonian groups which culminated in symbolic declaration of independence on Oct 1, 2017. Roadmap centered on civil disobedience and establishment of structures and election of officials of Southern Cameroon state.

    MoRisc

    8- Southern Cameroons Ambazonia United Front (SCACUF): 

    Launched in Feb 2017 in Nigeria during a conclave of major Southern Cameroons groups. Key members included:
    Republic of Ambazonia (RoA)
    SCNC
    SCAPO
    SCYL
    AGC
    Consortium
    Morisc.

    SCACUF is not « la branche armée du Scnc »! It was created to obtain international recognition for Southern Cameroons through diplomatic/legal means. It retained US law firm, Foley Hoag LLP, to lead a legal campaign and used civil disobedience (school boycott and Ghost Towns) to pressure Cameroon government.

    SCACUF spearheaded the worldwide “Takumbeng” demonstrations of Sept. 22, 2017 and the Oct 1, 2017 independence marches in Cameroon which were brutally quelled by Cameroun forces and marked the beginning of the radicalization of the hitherto generally nonviolent campaign. See photo::
    SCACUF set up a Governing Council led by Sisiku Ayuk Tabe & Tassang Wilfred that included representatives from all major pro-independent groups. However, ideological, strategic, operational and personal differences soon led to a collapse of the United Front with groups such as MORISC withdrawing. See photos:




    9- Interim Government, Federal Republic of Ambazonia:

    On Oct 31, 2017, what was left of SCACUF was dissolved and transformed into an Interim Government with Sisiku Ayuk Tabe as President. He unveiled his cabinet one month later, after failing to revive the United Front and create a coalition government.


    After attacks against Cameroun forces in Jakiri and Bamenda in Nov 2017, “Interim Government” issued a statement on Nov 9 reaffirming its “commitment to the principle of nonviolence and to continue its diplomatic and legal effort" to achieve independence.

    In a Nov. 9, 2017 tweet, Sisiku Ayuk Tabe “condem[s] the killings of Soldiers and Civilians in Jakiri and Bamenda in the past days. "Our revolution has been non-violent" he said. While some praise him for his insistence on nonviolence others angrily accuse him of "betrayal".


    The Interim Government's position on (non)violence stays the same until leadership arrest in Abuja in Jan 9, 2018 even though Sisiku Ayuk cautioned in a Dec 4 interview that while it was premature to turn to violence, “all options are now available for us to use in our restoration quest”.

    Will arrest of Ambazonia Interim Government leadership end insurgency? Unlikely because armed groups on ground apart from ADF & SOCADEF, are autonomous local cells reacting to local events with little or no connection or coordination among them and operating on a quasi-franchise model.


    Some local grps taking on Cameroun forces include Ambazonia Restoration Army (Kupe Manenguba/Boyo), Banso Liberation Army (Bui), The Tigers of Ambazonia (Manyu). These are mostly “ghost armies” with no known command structure and no known links to thee Interim Government or other Ambazonian groups.



    The arrest of the Interim Government leadership is a largely symbolic and even Pyrrhic victory for Cameroon government because Interim Government did not initiate armed insurrection but was simply put before a fait accompli by autonomous "Restoration Forces" not beholden to any movement or national “leader”.

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